My Photography from my October trip to Rome
50 – 500 AD
Timeframe: 63 (Conquer Palestine) – 410 (Western Empire)
The Roman Empire brought political unity and improved travel conditions, which allowed the early Christians to travel free from wars and bandits and proselytize. Christians spread the gospel to the Jews and the Gentiles throughout the Roman Empire due to the common language of Greek and the Septuagint.
Second Century Persecution and the Acts of the Martyrs
Timeframe: Pliny the Younger, appointed governor of Bithynia in 111 – Septimius Severus, Roman Emperor (193-211)
This period was marked by intermittent Christian persecution, in part because of the Trajan policy to Pliny to not seek Christian, but punish or force a recant if brought forward. This period introduced the Acts of the martyrs and martyrologies that told the story and witness of the martyr and their death.
Apologists, Defenders of the Faith
Timeframe: 2nd -3rd centuries
The writings of the apologists arose due to the Trajan policy where anyone could make a claim a person was Christian, therefore it was important to squash misconceptions. The arguments were used for centuries. Justin the Martyr is an example.
Teachers of the Faith
Timeframe: 2nd and 3rd centuries
The teachers helped to establish the doctrine of the church. Some of the leading apologists were: Irenaeus, Origen and Tertullian.
Constantine and the Edict of Milan
Timeframe: Edict in 313. Constantine reign: 306 – 337
Constantine as Roman Emperor and the edict ended widespread persecution of Christianity under Diocletian’s reign and provided the returning of property to Christians. This was the beginning of the Eastern empire Byzantium where Constantine made his residence and renamed.
Eusebius of Caesarea
Timeframe: 263- 339
Eusebius became bishop of Caesarea in 313 and was a historian. His most famous work was Ecclesiastical History, which was a prototype for later historians.
Arian Controversy and the First Council of Nicea
Timeframe: 4th Century
This was a major Christological heresy over who and what is Christ and his role. After Constantine, the church could meet to settle dispute and the First Council of Nicea met in 325. It resolved issues related to the end of persecution.
Beginning of Monasticism
Timeframe: ca 350 – 365 (p 157)
Monasticism arose in part due to the comfortable life of Christians after gaining support of the Roman Empire. Living apart from the city in rigid conditions allowed one to become a living martyr and to strengthen your faith to withstand the temptations of an easy life without persecution.
Athanasius of Alexandria and the canonization of the Bible
Timeframe: around 300 – 373
Athanasius was bishop of Alexandria. He helped to end the Arian controversy and provided the first list of the Bible in 367.
Augustine of Hippo
Timeframe: b. 354 – 430 p 241
Augustine, bishop of Hippo, was a theologian whose work was influential throughout Christian history and it influenced the Reformation. He worked against Manichean, Donatist and Pelagian controversies. He wrote The City of God in response to the claim that Rome fail due to Christians.
AD 500 – 1000
Benedict of Nursia
Timeframe: 480 – 550
Benedict was the most important in the development of western monasticism. He left the Rule of St. Benedict.
Dionysius and Apophatic Theology
Timeframe: Sixth Century
The lasting influence of his work is apophatic theology or “theology-by-taking-away”. His work influenced later writers including Teresa of Avila (16th century).
Justinian was a Byzantine emperor noted for his building program and calling the Second Council of Constantinople in 553.
Pope Gregory I
Timeframe: 540 – 604
Gregory as a pope was concerned about pastoral care, liturgy reform and the primacy of the papacy. He also provided Gregorian chant.
Muhammad and the Muslim conquest
Timeframe: 622 – 632
Many areas that were Christian were now under Muslim rule. Christian apologists and the Just War Theory developed in response.
The Golden Age of Byzantium
Timeframe: 641 – 1025
While the West went through a Dark Age, the East flowered in culture, art, military strength and religious influence.
The Venerable Bede
Timeframe: 672 – 735
Bede was a monk in an English monastery and wrote the ecclesiastical history of the English church.
Timeframe: 726 – 843
A debate about Christology that had a core question was “Can God be represented?” Iconoclasts were the destroyers of images. Iconodules wanted images in worship.
Charlemagne was King of Frankish empire and revived the Roman Empire. He ushered in the Carolingian Renaissance.
John Scotus Erigena
Timeframe: ca 810 – 877
He was a great systematic thinker and a forerunner for scholasticism.
AD 1000 – 1500
Monastic Reforms: Cluny and Citeaux
Timeframe: Cluny ca 910 – ca 1157; Cistercians 11th – 12th century
The purpose of the Cluny houses was to bring back the meaning of the Rules of Benedict which were lost due to affluence and carelessness. The Cistercians were a reform of the Cluny monastery and required strict poverty.
Eucharistic Debate of the Ninth Century
Timeframe: Ninth Century
The discussion is over the nature of the Eucharistic or transubstantiation. This is forerunner to the debates of the Protestant Reformation.
Architecture / Medieval Churches
Timeframe: 1000 – 1200
Medieval churches provided the stories of the church since people could not read or have access to books. They also provided communion.
East – West Schism
The Eastern and Western parts of the Roman Empire officially split into the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Crusades and the Just War Theory
Timeframe 950 – 1350
There were nine major crusades. The first was initiated by Pope Urban II in a sermon who said God wills it. The holy places were under Muslim conquest. The causes for the Crusades were various such as economic; human motivations, such as wanderlust; and political/religious.
Scholastics and the beginning of the Universities
Timeframe: First, University of Bologna 1088
The university system began by a model of a guild of masters. Schools were developed to train priests.
Timeframe: Dominican order began in 1216. Franciscan order began in 1210
The growth of the cities brought about wealth and a big difference between the rich and the poor. The monastery response was to live by begging.
Anselm of Canterbury
Timeframe: ca 1033 – 1109
His significance to the development of scholasticism was to apply reason to faith.
Timeframe: 1225 – 1274
Aquinas served as papal theologian. He wrote the Summa Theologiae which is used today.
Many people doubted the rational ordered thinking. Veneration of relics increased as well as pilgrimages.